Lecture 1

Lecture 1: Basics of light and imaging (duration:1h30)



  •  Review and understanding of basic principles of light
  • Review and understanding of basic principles of imaging system ( pinhole camera, lenses, …)


  • Basics of light: physical nature (what is light and how to describe it, basic wave equation, amplitude, phase),light spectrum, coherence …
  • Interaction between light and surface: refraction, specular and diffusive reflection.
  • Empty magnification
  • Pixels and aliasing
  • Lighting techniques
  • Interferences, diffraction, fringes, …
  • Imaging:
    •    Principle of lenses
    •    Imaging distance, magnification, focal distance
    •    Field of View, Depth of field, aperture (F-number),exposure time
    •    Spherical and chromatic aberration
    •    Distortion
    •    Zoom lenses, macro lenses, telecentric lenses
  • Technology of CCD and CMOS sensors: construction, fill factor, aliasing, integration time
  • Other sensors (ISIS, ICCD…)
  • Camera technology: digitization, difference between general public and industrial cameras, connection (fire wire, utp …) and drivers, frame grabber, synchronization with other devices. Shuttering.
  • Specificities of  (ultra)high speed cameras: frame rate vs. resolution
  • Image formats (8 bit up to 16 bit, tiff format, including compression)
  • Camera selection


  • Knowledge of essential elements of geometrical optics
  • Ability to select appropriate lens for a specific application
  • Ability to select an appropriate camera device for a specific application